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In this text, I want to state my vision of how the development of outer space will take place, which, I am sure, will happen in the next 20 years. I mean the real development of outer space, with permanent, developing, economically advantageous colonies on the Moon, Mars, and not as now.
I do not think that everything will happen as planned by Elon Mask, NASA and other colonizers - it is already clear that many of their plans are not feasible with the current level of development of technology, industry, and economy. For example, I'm quite sure that first the colony will be founded and developed on the Moon, and only then on Mars, although Mars will not be very needed in the next 20-50 years. In addition, I am quite sure that laser-mirror accelerators, described in the famous Lubin-Milner-Hawking initiative ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breakthrough_Starshot ), will be the main way to create traction for transporting goods to the far space. but not BFR, as Elon Mask thinks. And this method of accelerating the spacecraft was intended for micro chambers from a single chip and weighing several grams, it is quite clear that this method is perfect for large spacecraft with a person on board. Even a superficial analysis of all possible ways of creating thrust shows that laser acceleration has, in principle, no alternative. Some significant steps in this direction are being taken now, if anyone is interested, I will later tell you what I'm talking about.
 To begin with, I want to sort out some real, but not so significant, obstacles to space exploration, as space experts say to us over the past few years. In this material, I will begin with cosmic radiation, which, at first glance, makes it almost impossible for a flight to Mars and a long stay on it. Indeed, both the galactic radiation and the radiation of the Sun during its increased activity have a large power - but it consists for the most part of charged particles, which can perfectly deviate from the protected objects by an ordinary magnetic field. The main question here is how to make the heavy charged particles deflected by the magnetic field go away from the protected object and not hit it, causing a shower of particles of the next generation? To do this, the magnetic field must be very intense and at the same time extended. In terms of the intensity of the problems for a long time there is no - this is solved using magnets on alloys with rare earth elements (neodymium). To create an extended field we will be helped by an open magnetic field circuit - a field created by a magnet with the ends of the magnetic circuit maximally spaced in opposite directions (by 180 deg.). In conditions of space during a flight, it is difficult to create such a magnetic circuit for a number of reasons - but this is not necessary if the flight does not last for months but days or weeks, which will happen due to laser accelerators. But with a long stay on Mars, such a magnetic protection is quite possible and necessary, and we can even calculate the minimum weight of the necessary components for this. To create an open magnetic field, an iron wire with a diameter even of the order of a few millimeters is quite suitable. Calculate how much will weigh the magnetic circuit length of a kilometer, for example - it will be enough to protect the colony in the first time. Let's take the area of the section of iron wire in 4 square meters. mm (standard cross-section), the diameter will be approximately 2.2 mm, according to the table for such a wire (available on the Internet) we learn that the weight of 1 km of wire will be approximately 30 kg. Let's add the weight of a rare-earth magnet in 1-2 kg - total 31-31 kg, it is quite acceptable, I believe. In addition to protecting against charged particles of cosmic radiation, we will get a number of nice options. For example, an extended magnetic circuit can be used as a conductor to transmit electricity from generating power (on Mars it will be a mini-nuclear power plant), paired with yet another conductor to close the circuit. In addition, the magnetic attraction will draw magnetic (Mars) dust from the surrounding magnetic circuit of the surface of Mars or the Moon, which can be regularly collected and remelted to produce iron and building materials for the colony. Considering what kind of dust storms there are on Mars, you can safely expect the sticking of a thick layer of dust onto the magnetic circuit, under which it will not be visible. This may well be the beginning of a fully paid off metallurgical industry on Mars. In addition, as a rule, iron-bearing rocks also often contain in their composition various valuable rare earth elements - this means that the flight for an asteroid of gold can be postponed - it will be easier and cheaper to mine gold on Mars. The same deflecting deflecting magnetic system is also possible on the Moon, and with the same additional functions - the transmission of electricity to the colony from the generating capacity (on the Moon it will be solar power stations) and the collection of iron-containing dust. On the moon, the metallurgical industry will pay off much faster than on Mars for a number of reasons - the moon is much more convenient for creating on its industry the production of steel and aluminum and the production of spacecraft for them to colonize the same Mars and other purposes. At the same time, when collecting lunar dust for remelting and obtaining oxygen and helium-3 from it, there will be great difficulties associated with the absence of an atmosphere and high electrization of this dust, and hence its adhesion. Do not suck it with a vacuum cleaner, as on Earth, and do not clean off later with a tool and a spacesuit or a robot picker. But the magnetic separation and collection of iron-containing dust is extremely convenient and cheap, and will undoubtedly be used on the Moon. With lunar dust is another problem, described even during the missions of the Apollo - it is harmful to humans and easily penetrates into spacesuits and inhabited volume, causes increased wear of machinery, covers solar cells over time and reduces the generation of electricity. Undoubtedly, it will interfere with future optical telescopes on the Moon, which will necessarily appear there, as well as other scientific projects. All this means that the problem will arise of clearing the surface of the Moon from the dust in the area of the inhabited colony and scientific facilities, which will be done by the metallurgical lunar industry. At the same time, it is extremely simple to receive energy for the recovery and melting of metals on the Moon - it is enough to build a solar concentrator that will direct the sunlight entirely or only part of its spectrum into a solar furnace where the burden of lunar dust and rock will be found. On the Moon, it is possible to obtain oxygen from the dust when it is reduced to oxygen for breathing colonists and oxidizing fuel, as well as titanium, aluminum, iron, high purity silicon, and much more (including the notorious helium-3). On Mars, unfortunately, the focus with the solar furnace will not work - the sunlight is too weak there, and dust storms also happen. It will be necessary to build powerful nuclear power plants on Mars, and not somewhere, but at the poles - there it will turn out best.
Let us return to the magnetic deflection system. The ends of the magnetic circuit connected to the magnet will need to be spread apart from the magnet, as I wrote above, and must be fixed on the ground, because otherwise they will be attracted to one another, squirm and move until they finally close. For the same reason, such a scheme is not very suitable for open space, to protect astronauts and equipment of flying spacecraft - in order to keep the ends of the open magnetic contour in the opposite position, it is necessary to do some supporting power structure of trusses and stretch marks - and this is a big weight. Although in some cases - to protect against long-term inhabited station radiation somewhere in the far space, outside the Earth's radiation belts, such a scheme will still have to be realized. On Mars or on the moon, the magnetic circuit can be fixed directly to the ground.

About energy on Mars.
As it was said earlier, if we are talking about the creation of a developed industry on Mars, including metallurgy, the production of rocket fuel from water - a powerful energy is required, which will undoubtedly consist of powerful nuclear power plants - located - suddenly - at the poles of Mars . It's all about terramorphing, in addition to the obvious reason to have a source of energy - if you remember, the intention of Mask and NASA is to warm up Mars by evaporating carbon dioxide from the polar caps of Mars and creating a greenhouse effect. Mask even suggested, if anyone remembers, to blow up nuclear bombs on the poles of Mars - to which he immediately proved the uselessness of such an event. But long-term working at the poles of nuclear power plants is quite another matter, they will warm, of course, weakly, but continuously, gradually increasing the temperature of the surrounding area and evaporating carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and there the process will start and become self-sustaining. Another reason for placing NPPs on the poles is an increase in efficiency - the higher the gradient between the coolant temperature for turbine unwinding and the ambient ambient temperature, the easier it will be to lose residual heat from the coolant after the turbine, the smaller the dimensions are needed for heat exchange surfaces, the higher the NPP efficiency. But the main reason for the need to place powerful (on the order of hundreds of megawatts or more) nuclear power plants on the poles is the presence of water there - a universal coolant and raw materials for the production of hydrogen and oxygen - rocket fuel and energy reserves. Without such a coolant, the operation of powerful nuclear power plants is impossible in principle. The technology of heat dissipation for radiation used in KiloPowers only for them is good.
In principle, it is even possible to directly decompose water directly into the reactor of the nuclear power plant - in order to increase efficiency and simplify, cheaper construction. But the problem is that this technology is very dangerous (explosive) and not worked out in the conditions of the Earth, which means it is unlikely to be used on Mars. Most likely, the scheme will be like on Earth - a nuclear power plant with a turbine generates electricity, which will partially go to the needs of a colony located in the equator's area through an extended power line (which, as we recall, will simultaneously be an element of global magnetic radiation protection), and partly - to electrolysis The decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen, which will take place away from the plant for safety.
There is a serious problem in this plan, which so far nothing has been thinking about - what will happen at the poles of Mars in the process of their warming up (the South Pole is more suitable for this - there is more ice and more carbon dioxide). As we have known for a long time, carbon dioxide and ice are located there in layers, and during the sublimation of carbon dioxide at the pole there will be an explosive exit of carbon dioxide from the depths of the glacier, and if not, voids will form in the thickness of the water ice, and it will periodically collapse. Thus, at the initial stage of heating there will be a real hell, and the work of such a serious system as a powerful nuclear power plant will be impossible there. In this case, at the initial stage of heating up the poles, we can get a technology like KiloPower, but a slightly different design. It should be mini-reactors with generation on Peltier elements or Stirling engine, that is, the most simple and reliable machines without the need for maintenance, the main function of which will be preheating the surrounding space in order to sublimate carbon dioxide and prepare the relief, so that when the construction of the main NPP, everything has already stabilized and there have not been any unpleasant surprises, such as an explosion of a carbon dioxide volcano in the thickness of a Martian rock or the failure of a nuclear power plant to empty ground excavation. Such mini-reactors should not have any brittle protruding parts like that of KiloPower with its thin hat of the radiator - their form factor should be like a cube or even a ball that will calmly roll around the frenzy of carbon dioxide that is happening around the insanity, and nothing it can not damage. That's just the problem is how to remove the generated electricity from it. I think that a small battery and a radio beacon must be located inside the reactor so that the search robot can easily find the reactor under the rubble of water ice. I think this technology of super-strong nuclear power plants can be started right now, on Earth. Moreover, it will be fully applicable on Earth. When the active stage of Mars colonization begins, such reactors can be started to be thrown to the poles of Mars by hundreds directly from orbit, possibly even without a soft landing system (if the design allows).
As a fuel for the Martian nuclear power plant, MOX fuel is excellent, since plutonium is much cheaper than pure uranium, and it's stupid to put it anywhere. For natural reasons, all the nuclear states have accumulated huge reserves of low-enriched plutonium, which are very dangerous and expensive to store - that's what can be sent to Mars, and then all the nuclear weapons would be good for peaceful purposes. For example, weapons-grade plutonium, accumulated over the decades since the beginning of its production, is still unsuitable for its intended purpose - also for known natural causes.
Of course, MOX fuel is more dangerous than uranium - but for Mars only its structural instability is relevant. The problem with its high toxicity for obvious reasons for Mars is irrelevant - so far, at least. Of course, if there is an accident at the Mars pole with MOX fuel, and plutonium will contaminate half of the world's water reserves, it will be very sad. Therefore, such an industry should be placed only at one pole - so that the water reserves from the other pole remain clean, guaranteed. True, there is a danger that if you only heat one pole, the carbon dioxide will simply run from one pole to the other, and terramorphing will not work. In this case, it makes sense to come up with a way to warm the second pole of Mars too - but only in an environmentally friendly way.
So, let's continue. And let's talk today about the possible transport on Mars. As you know, smart people immediately realized that almost all the so-called "green" or other seemingly completely earthly projects by Elon Mask - like Tesla or Hyperloop - have a clearly defined application to Mars. In fact - on what traction can you travel on the surface of Mars? Obviously - on electric traction, ICE there can not work - there is no oxygen. Here Elon Mask and fulfills different technologies on the Earth, which are then almost ready, with minimal modifications can be used in the colonization of Mars. This also applies to Hyperloop , and to Gigafabrika. But there are some problems that will grieve Mask and his admirers - will not go to Mars Tesla. And there are many reasons. Starting with the roads that will be needed for it, and costing their construction will be huge money (as on Earth), and to a low temperature at which lithium-ion batteries stop working. The Martian relief in comparison with the earthly one is much more crossed (as well as on the Moon, by the way), because gravity is weaker there, and there are almost no (in comparison with the Earth) such important factors of relief smoothing as water and wind erosion. All this will greatly complicate the construction of roads, so that Tesla for Mars will not work - such cases, Elon Mask. Hyperloop is quite another matter, it will perfectly fit for Mars, although without a pipe (for it is not necessary at all), but with the same sealed trailers, and it will probably move along two rails-energy will be supplied for them. The same rails, as we remember from the text above, can also be used to transfer energy from polar nuclear power plants to equatorial settlements, and they can also be used as magnetic circuits for the Martian radiation protection. In general, there is nothing new in the Martian Hyperloop - the usual airtight train, that's just the way of transportation will be needed for large volumes of cargo and passengers - and how to be at the initial stages of colonization? And here the colonists are useful another - air transport, which we had on Earth, too, was once quite massive - it's airships, lighter than air. About aircraft and helicopters for obvious reasons, you can forget - but airships for Mars are very suitable - because it is cheap and reliable. Despite the very rarefied atmosphere of Mars, the airships will work there - how they work on our Earth at altitudes of 40 km - where the density of the atmosphere is about the same as on Mars. But these airships will not be helium, but hydrogen ones - for the carrying capacity is greater, it is very easy to get hydrogen on Mars - out of the water, and safely at all - there is no oxygen, hydrogen will not have anything to burn and explode with. Well, of course, you need some kind of propeller to get the horizontal speed - it can be like a normal screw driven by an electric motor, powered by batteries and solar panels. The speed that an airship can develop in the atmosphere of Mars can be quite high - about 100 kilometers per hour - and all thanks to a rarefied atmosphere.
All this will allow starting on Mars the construction of previously mentioned different industrial objects - nuclear power plants in the area of ​​the pole, factories for the production of oxygen and hydrogen from water in the same place, metallurgy facilities near the equator near settlements where it is warm. An efficient and cheap transport system from hydrogen dirigibles with autonomous control will solve the problem of coherence of the colony at the equator and power objects on the pole easily and simply. Designs and equipment for nuclear power plants are produced in the area of the equator on 3D printers from local material (where possible), using imported components (which can not be made locally), then transported by airships to the pole and mounted there.